The system of national parks in Brazil started in 1937 with the creation of Itatiaia National Park. Another two national parks have been created in 1939, and after a period of 20 years, the program of park creation has been restarted. Since then the number of parks increased steadily to 33 by 1990 and 67 by 2010. The size of the parks varies vastly between the 3,300 ha Tijuca National Park and the 3,800,000 ha Tumucumaque National Park. Of the 67 national parks, 19 are protecting an area representing 5% of the original Amazon Rainforest and another 22 protect 1% of the original Atlantic Forest. Seven parks are protecting the Caatinga ecoregion and twelve the Cerrado ecoregion. There are only six coastal and marine parks, one protecting the Pantanal wetland and none which would protect the Pampas.
List of national parks and national forests in Brazil:
1. Abrolhos MarineNational Park and national forests
The Abrolhos Marine National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional Marinho dos Abrolhos) is a Marine Park located in the Abrolhos Archipelago since 1983. The Abrolhos are an archipelago of 5 islands with coral reefs off the southern coast of Bahia state in the northeast of Brazil, between 17º25’—18º09’ S and 38º33’—39º05’ W.
2. Brasília National Park and national forests
The Brasília National Park (Parque Nacional de Brasília) is a national park located 10km from the center of Brasília, in the Federal District, in the center west of Brazil.
3. Cabo Orange National Park and national forests
The Cabo Orange National Park (Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange) is located in Amapá state in the north of Brazil, near the border between Brazil and French Guyana; 04º26’ N, 51º31’ W.
4. Emas National Park and national forests
The Emas National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional das Emas, literally meaning “Rhea National Park”) is a national park and a UNESCO World Heritage Sitein the states of Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. Emas National Park shows a typical cerrado ecosystem; a treeless savannah with tall termite houses and an interesting amount of wildlife: the giant anteater, the maned wolf, giant armadillo, pampas deer and the namesake greater rhea, among others. Emas National Park also holds a small Jaguar population, perhaps consisting of about 10-12 animals. Only about 40% of the reserve, which covers 1320 square kilometres in total, is good Jaguar habitat.
5. Fernando de Noronha National Park and national forests
Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, 354 km (220 mi) offshore from the Brazilian coast. The main island has an area of 18.4 square kilometres (7.1 sq mi) and had a population of 3,012 in the year 2010. The area is a special municipality (distrito estadual) of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco (despite being closer to the state of Rio Grande do Norte) and is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
6. Grande Sertão Veredas National Park and national forests
The Grande Sertão Veredas National Park (Parque Nacional Grande Sertão Veredas) is located on the border between Minas Gerais and Bahia states of Brazil, between 15º16’—15º25’S and 45º37’—46º03’W. It is named after one of the masterpieces of Brazilian literature, The Devil to Pay in the Backlands (in Portuguese Grande Sertão: Veredas) of Guimarães Rosa.
7. Iguaçu National Park and national forests
Iguaçu National Park is a national park in Paraná State, Brazil. Created by federal decree nr. 1035 of January 10, 1939, the Park comprises a total area of 185,262.5 hectares and a length of about 420km, 300km of which are natural borders by bodies of water and the Brazilian and Argentinean sides together comprise around 225 thousand hectares. On November 17, 1986, during the UNESCO conference held in Paris, the Iguaçú National Park was listed as Natural Heritage of Humanity and is one of the largest forest preservation areas in South America.
8. Jaú National Park and national forests
The Jaú National Park (“Parque Nacional do Jaú” in Portuguese) is located in the Amazonas state in Brazil, between 1º00’—3º00’S and 61º30’—64º00’W. It is the largest forest reserve in South America, covering an area greater than 5.6 million acres (23,000 km²). Entry into the park is restricted; express permission from the Brazilian government is required to enter the reserve. The park is known as a good example of tropical rainforest conservation in the Amazon. It houses Jaguars, Amazonian Manatees, Amazon river dolphins, and numerous other species of animals and plants.
9. Lagoa do Peixe National Park and national forests
Lagoa do Peixe is a National Park created in 1986 in order to protect a wintering zone for migratory birds along the Lagoa dos Patos (the estuary of the Guaiba river or Guaíba Lake about 200 km at the South of Porto Alegre). The park is open to tourism (only a few thousands visitors per year, due to the relatively difficult access through the BR-101 road) and managed with a very light protection policy (human pollution from the Guaíba Lake, lack of enclosing and gates, etc.)
10. Monte Pascoal National Park and national forests
Monte Pascoal is located at 16°53’47.73″S, 39°24’26.09″W; 62 km to the south of the city of Porto Seguro, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. According to history, it was the first part of land viewed by Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, allegedly the first European to arrive in Brazil, in 1500. It was described as a tall, rounded mountain arising from the ocean. Monte Pascoal is a national symbol to Brazilians and gives its name to a national park, ‘Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal’. It includes a Pataxó Indian settlement and is one of the sites where the original Mata Atlântica forest has been preserved.
Other National Park and national forests in Canada
There’re some other national parks and national forests in Canada, that we don’t have enough time and information to list them here. They are: Amazônia National Park, Alto Cariri National Park, Aparados da Serra National Park, Araguaia National Park, Araucárias National Park, Boa Nova National Park, Campos Amazônicos National Park, Campos Gerais National Park, Caparaó National Park, Cavernas do Peruaçu National Park, Chapada das Mesas National Park, Chapada Diamantina National Park, Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Descobrimento National Park, Furna Feia National Park, Ilha Grande National Park, Itatiaia National Park, Jamanxim National Park, Jericoacoara National Park, Jurubatiba Sandbank National Park, Juruena National Park, Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Mapinguari National Park, and other 20 national parks and national forests in Brazil.