The National Park usually located in areas mostly undeveloped, usually those with active-area native plants and rare ecosystems in particular (such as specific as endangered species ), the biodiversity , geological or other special features. Occasionally, national forests were established in the area has developed with the aim of making it back to the area almost identical to its original state, as close as possible.
In some countries, such as in the United Kingdom and Wales , the area is used as a national park are not wilderness, nor owned by the state, and may include residential and land use is significant, usually they are a integral part of the landscape. The forest’s first Scottish National Park Loch Lomond and the Trossachs , was established in July 2002 and the Cairngorms National forest was established in March 2003 .
History of National park and National forest
The idea of establishing natural landscape worthy of protection under the particular protection is derived from the early 19th century. English poet William Wordsworth in 1810 wrote about the Lake District as “a national asset which everyone has rights and interests, who have eyes to identify and heart to enjoy” . American artist George Catlin in 1832, during the trip to the western United States, wrote that the natives of North America in the United States should be preserved: by some great protecting policy of government … in the magnificent gardens … A national park, containing human and animal, all in the wild and the purity of their natural beauty! . Baron Finnish Swedish Adolf Erik Nordenskiold also made similar comments in 1880 . The American Naturalist Scotland John Muir also gave the inspiration to establish national forests, referring to many ideas of the conservation movement, environmental and animal rights later. Their common idea is keep the wonders of nature so that future generations can enjoy them and find them there.
Launched of National park and National forest
First attempt to set the land is protected in the United States , on April 20 in 1832 , when President Andrew Jackson signed a decree to reserve four areas around the area today is the Hot Springs , Arkansas to protect the natural hot springs and mountain areas adjacent to the U.S. government for future use. It is known as the Hot Springs Conservation Area . But the agency did not have any power state was established and federal control of the region was not clearly established until 1877.
Next try to establish the land is protected in the United States, when President Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Congress on June 30 in 1864 , ceding the Yosemite Valley and Mariposa forest for the trees sam distance (or hard parts giant) (later the Yosemite National Park ) to the state of California , stating: Mentioned states [California] to will accept this assignment with clear conditions that the property will be maintained for public use, the center of rest and recreation; will not be transferred to any time.
In 1872 , Yellowstone National forest was established as national parks, the first true world. When news of the natural wonders of the Yellowstone area was first announced, this land, other than Yosemite, are part of the territory of any State which is not accounted for their management, so the relevant authorities state was responsible for direct management, a process formally completed on October 1 in 1890 . It is tried and combined benefits of conservationists, politicians and business people in particular (namely management company railroads of the North Pacific, where our journey through Montana had obtained major benefits generated by the tourist attractions of this), to ensure that Congress will approve ordinance to establish Yellowstone National Park.
Wallace Stegner has written that national parks are the best idea of Americans – from the conservation of nature that the royal family can save the world for themselves – to create democracy conservation , open to everyone, “it reflects our best in terms of, not in terms of the worst.”. However, only 44 years after the establishment of national parks, Yellowstone, Yosemite, and nearly 37 national forests, protected areas, the state agency comprehensive management of these areas was established in the United States – which the United States Department of the National Park (NPS). Another interesting thing is an entrepreneur, Mr. Stephen Mather , was the most powerful push for the establishment of the NPS, he wrote to Franklin Knight Lane , then as Minister of the Interior on demand. Lane invited Mather to Washington, DC to work with him in the draft and wait for the passage of the bill on NPS organization, the U.S. Congress approved and signed on August 25 in 1916 .
The number of existing regional management by the NPS in the United States is 391, of which only 58 are national parks.
In other countries, the idea of establishment of national forests such as Yellowstone has gradually been accepted. In Australia , the Royal National Park was established in southern Sydney in 1879 . In Canada , Banff National Park (then known as Rocky Mountain National Park) is the first national forests of this country in 1885 . New Zealand is the first national park in 1887 . In Europe the first national park is a set of nine parks in Sweden in 1909 . Currently, Europe has 370 national forests .
After World War Second , national parks have been established worldwide. Vanoise National forest in the mountain areas Alps is the first national park in France, founded in 1963 took place after the demonstrations to prevent a tourism project here. In Vietnam, Cuc Phuong National forest , established in 1966 as the first national park in the country.